List/Grid

Biology Subscribe to Biology

Fast modeling of cancer mutations

Fast modeling of cancer mutations

Sequencing the genomes of tumor cells has revealed thousands of genetic mutations linked with cancer. However, sifting through this deluge of information to figure out which of these mutations actually drive cancer growth has proven to be a tedious, time-consuming process. MIT researchers have now developed a new way to model the effects of these genetic mutations in mice Continue reading

In disease outbreak management, flexibility can save lives, money

In disease outbreak management, flexibility can save lives, money

A new approach for responding to and managing disease outbreaks is being proposed by a team of epidemiologists led by two Penn State University researchers. The team’s flexible approach could save many lives and millions of dollars. The approach, called “adaptive management,” allows decision-makers to use knowledge they gain during an outbreak to update ongoing interventions with the goal of containing outbreaks more quickly and efficiently. Continue reading

Salmonella-infected mice that were given antibiotics became superspreaders

Salmonella-infected mice that were given antibiotics became superspreaders

Salmonella-infected mice that were given antibiotics became sicker and began shedding far more bacteria in their feces than they had before. Some people infected with pathogens spread their germs to others while remaining symptom-free themselves Continue reading

Salmonella-infected mice that were given antibiotics became superspreaders

Salmonella-infected mice that were given antibiotics became superspreaders

Salmonella-infected mice that were given antibiotics became sicker and began shedding far more bacteria in their feces than they had before. Some people infected with pathogens spread their germs to others while remaining symptom-free themselves. Now, investigators at the Stanford University School of Medicine believe they may know why Continue reading

Siblings of children with autism can show signs at 18 months

Siblings of children with autism can show signs at 18 months

About 20% of younger siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) will develop the condition by age 3. A new study by Yale School of Medicine researchers has found that 57% of these younger siblings who later develop the condition already showed symptoms at age 18 months. Published in the October Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry , this is the first large-scale, multi-site study aimed at identifying specific social-communicative behaviors that distinguish infants with ASD from their typically and atypically developing high-risk peers as early as 18 months of age Continue reading

Patients treated with radiation therapy who have tumors in left breast have comparable overall survival to those with tumors in right breast

Patients treated with radiation therapy who have tumors in left breast have comparable overall survival to those with tumors in right breast

Tumor laterality (left-side vs. right-side) does not impact overall survival in breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant external beam radiation therapy, according to a study published in the October 1, 2014 issue of the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (Red Journal), the official scientific journal of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). Studies have shown that breast cancer patients treated with radiation therapy have improved local-regional recurrence, and breast cancer-specific survival after breast-conserving surgery and overall survival (OS) after mastectomy Continue reading

Lab-developed intestinal organoids form mature human tissue in mice

Lab-developed intestinal organoids form mature human tissue in mice

Researchers have successfully transplanted “organoids” of functioning human intestinal tissue grown from pluripotent stem cells in a lab dish into mice — creating an unprecedented model for studying diseases of the intestine. Continue reading

Improving bladder function among people with spinal cord injuries

Improving bladder function among people with spinal cord injuries

People who have suffered spinal cord injuries are often susceptible to bladder infections, and those infections can cause kidney damage and even death. New UCLA research may go a long way toward solving the problem. A team of scientists studied 10 paralyzed rats that were trained daily for six weeks with epidural stimulation of the spinal cord and five rats that were untrained and did not receive the stimulation. Continue reading

Physicists sound warning to ‘nail beauty fanatics’

Physicists sound warning to ‘nail beauty fanatics’

The daily trimming of fingernails and toenails to make them more aesthetically pleasing could be detrimental and potentially lead to serious nail conditions. This is according to researchers at the University of Nottingham who have devised equations to identify the physical laws that govern nail growth, and used them to throw light on the causes of some of the most common nail problems, such as ingrown toe nails, spoon-shaped nails and pincer nails Continue reading

Cystic Fibrosis lung infection: Scientists open black box on bacterial growth

Cystic Fibrosis lung infection: Scientists open black box on bacterial growth

Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have shown for the first time how bacteria can grow directly in the lungs of Cystic fibrosis patients, giving them the opportunity to get tremendous insights into bacteria behavior and growth in chronic infections. The study also discovered the bacterial growth in chronic lung infections among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was halted or slowed down by the immune cells. The researchers discovered the immune cells consumed all the oxygen and helped “suffocate” the bacteria, forcing the bacteria to switch to a much slower growth. Continue reading