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Traumatic brain injury associated with increased dementia risk in older adults

Traumatic brain injury associated with increased dementia risk in older adults

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) appears to be associated with an increased risk of dementia in adults 55 years and older, according to a study published online by JAMA Neurology . Controversy exists about whether there is a link between a single TBI and the risk of developing dementia because of conflicting study results Continue reading

Clues to genetics of congenital heart defects emerge from Down syndrome study

Clues to genetics of congenital heart defects emerge from Down syndrome study

Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality in humans, involving a third copy of all or part of chromosome 21. In addition to intellectual disability, individuals with Down syndrome have a high risk of congenital heart defects. However, not all people with Down syndrome have them — about half have structurally normal hearts Continue reading

Benchmark proposed to better replicate natural stem cell development in the laboratory environment

Benchmark proposed to better replicate natural stem cell development in the laboratory environment

In a study that will provide the foundation for scientists to better replicate natural stem cell development in an artificial environment, UCLA researchers at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research led by Dr. Guoping Fan, professor of human genetics, have established a benchmarking standard to assess how culture conditions used to procure stem cells in the lab compare to those found in the human embryo. The study was published online ahead of print in the journal Cell Stem Cell Continue reading

YEATS protein potential therapeutic target for cancer

YEATS protein potential therapeutic target for cancer

Federal Express® and UPS® are no match for the human body when it comes to distribution. Continue reading

Ancient Europeans intolerant to lactose for 5,000 years after they adopted agriculture

Ancient Europeans intolerant to lactose for 5,000 years after they adopted agriculture

By analysing DNA extracted from the petrous bones of skulls of ancient Europeans, scientists have identified that these peoples remained intolerant to lactose (natural sugar in the milk of mammals) for 5,000 years after they adopted agricultural practices and 4,000 years after the onset of cheese-making among Central European Neolithic farmers. The findings published online in the scientific journal Nature Communications (21 Oct) also suggest that major technological transitions in Central Europe between the Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age were also associated with major changes in the genetics of these populations. Continue reading

See-through sensors open new window into the brain

See-through sensors open new window into the brain

Developing invisible implantable medical sensor arrays, a team of University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers has overcome a major technological hurdle in researchers’ efforts to understand the brain. Continue reading

See-through sensors open new window into the brain

See-through sensors open new window into the brain

Developing invisible implantable medical sensor arrays, a team of University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers has overcome a major technological hurdle in researchers’ efforts to understand the brain. The team described its technology, which has applications in fields ranging from neuroscience to cardiac care and even contact lenses, in the Oct. 20 issue of the online journal Nature Communications Continue reading

Scientists restore hearing in noise-deafened mice, pointing way to new therapies

Scientists restore hearing in noise-deafened mice, pointing way to new therapies

Scientists have restored the hearing of mice partly deafened by noise, using advanced tools to boost the production of a key protein in their ears. By demonstrating the importance of the protein, called NT3, in maintaining communication between the ears and brain, these new findings pave the way for research in humans that could improve treatment of hearing loss caused by noise exposure and normal aging Continue reading

Scientists restore hearing in noise-deafened mice, pointing way to new therapies

Scientists restore hearing in noise-deafened mice, pointing way to new therapies

Scientists have restored the hearing of mice partly deafened by noise, using advanced tools to boost the production of a key protein in their ears. By demonstrating the importance of the protein, called NT3, in maintaining communication between the ears and brain, these new findings pave the way for research in humans that could improve treatment of hearing loss caused by noise exposure and normal aging. In a new paper in the online journal eLife , the team from the University of Michigan Medical School’s Kresge Hearing Research Institute and Harvard University report the results of their work to understand NT3′s role in the inner ear, and the impact of increased NT3 production on hearing after a noise exposure. Continue reading

Gene duplications associated with autism evolved recently in human history

Gene duplications associated with autism evolved recently in human history

Human geneticists have discovered that a region of the genome associated with autism contains genetic variation that evolved in the last 250,000 years, after the divergence of humans from ancient hominids, and likely plays an important role in disease. Their findings were presented at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 2014 Annual Meeting in San Diego. Researchers at the University of Washington analyzed the genomes of 2,551 humans, 86 apes, one Neanderthal, and one Denisovan Continue reading