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Molecular mechanisms of birth defects among older women: Why older women can have babies with Down Syndrome

Molecular mechanisms of birth defects among older women: Why older women can have babies with Down Syndrome

Dartmouth researchers studying cell division in fruit flies have discovered a pathway that may improve understanding of molecular mistakes that cause older women to have babies with Down syndrome. The study shows for the first time that new protein linkages occur in immature egg cells after DNA replication and that these replacement linkages are essential for these cells to maintain meiotic cohesion for long periods. The study appears in the journal PLOS Genetics Continue reading

Molecular mechanisms of birth defects among older women: Why older women can have babies with Down Syndrome

Molecular mechanisms of birth defects among older women: Why older women can have babies with Down Syndrome

Dartmouth researchers studying cell division in fruit flies have discovered a pathway that may improve understanding of molecular mistakes that cause older women to have babies with Down syndrome. The study shows for the first time that new protein linkages occur in immature egg cells after DNA replication and that these replacement linkages are essential for these cells to maintain meiotic cohesion for long periods Continue reading

In one of nature’s innovations, a single cell smashes and rebuilds its own genome

In one of nature’s innovations, a single cell smashes and rebuilds its own genome

Life can be so intricate and novel that even a single cell can pack a few surprises, according to a study led by Princeton University researchers. The pond-dwelling, single-celled organism Oxytricha trifallax has the remarkable ability to break its own DNA into nearly a quarter-million pieces and rapidly reassemble those pieces when it’s time to mate, the researchers report in the journal Cell. Continue reading

Ultraviolet light-induced mutation drives many skin cancers, researchers find

Ultraviolet light-induced mutation drives many skin cancers, researchers find

A genetic mutation caused by ultraviolet light is likely the driving force behind millions of human skin cancers, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. Continue reading

Disease in a dish approach could aid Huntington’s disease discovery

Disease in a dish approach could aid Huntington’s disease discovery

Creating induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS cells allows researchers to establish “disease in a dish” models of conditions ranging from Alzheimer’s disease to diabetes. Scientists at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University have now applied the technology to a model of Huntington’s disease (HD) in transgenic nonhuman primates, allowing them to conveniently assess the efficacy of potential therapies on neuronal cells in the laboratory. Continue reading

Researchers define spontaneous retinal neovascular mouse model

Researchers define spontaneous retinal neovascular mouse model

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which involves formation of abnormal blood vessels in the retina, is a leading cause of vision loss. A subgroup of neovascular AMD, known as retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) disease, occurs when neovessels originating from the inner retinal vascular bed grow toward the outer retina and form leaky pathologic vessels beneath the retina. In a study featured in the Sept. Continue reading

Vaccine for Ebola? Experts answer questions

Vaccine for Ebola? Experts answer questions

Vermont Medicine: What is Ebola virus and where are Ebola infections most commonly seen? Continue reading

Cancer-fighting drugs might also stop malaria early

Cancer-fighting drugs might also stop malaria early

Scientists searching for new drugs to fight malaria have identified a number of compounds — some of which are currently in clinical trials to treat cancer — that could add to the anti-malarial arsenal. Duke University assistant professor Emily Derbyshire and colleagues identified more than 30 enzyme-blocking molecules, called protein kinase inhibitors, that curb malaria before symptoms start Continue reading

Exposure to toxins makes great granddaughters more susceptible to stress

Exposure to toxins makes great granddaughters more susceptible to stress

Scientists have known that toxic effects of substances known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), found in both natural and human-made materials, can pass from one generation to the next, but new research shows that females with ancestral exposure to EDC may show especially adverse reactions to stress. Continue reading

Some anti-inflammatory drugs affect more than their targets

Some anti-inflammatory drugs affect more than their targets

Researchers have discovered that three commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, alter the activity of enzymes within cell membranes. Their finding suggests that, if taken at higher-than-approved doses and/or for long periods of time, these prescription-level NSAIDs and other drugs that affect the membrane may produce wide-ranging and unwanted side effects. More positively, the researchers say, their work provides the basis for a test that drug developers can use to predict and perhaps avoid these side effects in new medicines they make Continue reading