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Stem cell behavior of human bowel discovered for first time

Stem cell behavior of human bowel discovered for first time

For the first time, scientists have uncovered new information on how stem cells in the human bowel behave, revealing vital clues about the earliest stages in bowel cancer development and how we may begin to prevent it. The study, led by Queen May University of London (QMUL) and published today in the journal Cell Reports , discovered how many stem cells exist within the human bowel and how they behave and evolve over time. Continue reading

Dramatic growth of grafted stem cells in rat spinal cord

Dramatic growth of grafted stem cells in rat spinal cord

Building upon previous research, scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Veteran’s Affairs San Diego Healthcare System report that neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and grafted into rats after a spinal cord injury produced cells with tens of thousands of axons extending virtually the entire length of the animals’ central nervous system. Writing in the August 7 early online edition of Neuron , lead scientist Paul Lu, PhD, of the UC San Diego Department of Neurosciences and colleagues said the human iPSC-derived axons extended through the white matter of the injury sites, frequently penetrating adjacent gray matter to form synapses with rat neurons. Continue reading

Gene increases risk of breast cancer to one in three by age 70

Gene increases risk of breast cancer to one in three by age 70

Breast cancer risks for one of potentially the most important genes associated with breast cancer after the BRCA1/2 genes are today reported in the New England Journal of Medicine . Continue reading

Stress during pregnancy can be passed down through generations, rat study shows

Stress during pregnancy can be passed down through generations, rat study shows

To better understand problems during pregnancies today, we should look to the experiences of our ancestors, research published in the open access journal BMC Medicine suggests. Scientists investigating pregnancies in four generations of rats show that inherited epigenetic effects of stress could affect pregnancies for generations. Continue reading

Brain tumors fly under body’s radar like stealth jets, new research suggests

Brain tumors fly under body’s radar like stealth jets, new research suggests

Brain tumors fly under the radar of the body’s defense forces by coating their cells with extra amounts of a specific protein, new research shows. Like a stealth fighter jet, the coating means the cells evade detection by the early-warning immune system that should detect and kill them. Continue reading

Gene-editing technique offers new way to model cancer

Gene-editing technique offers new way to model cancer

Sequencing the genomes of tumor cells has revealed thousands of mutations associated with cancer. One way to discover the role of these mutations is to breed a strain of mice that carry the genetic flaw — but breeding such mice is an expensive, time-consuming process. Continue reading

Another potential ALS treatment avenue identfied by researchers

Another potential ALS treatment avenue identfied by researchers

A series of studies begun by Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) scientists eight years ago has lead to a report published today that may be a major step forward in the quest to develop real treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease. The findings by Harvard professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology (HSCRB) Kevin Eggan and colleagues also has produced functionally identical results in human motor neurons in a laboratory dish and in a mouse model of the disease, demonstrating that the modeling of human disease with customized stem cells in the laboratory could someday relatively soon eliminate some of the need for animal testing. Continue reading

Molecular competition drives adult stem cells to specialize, study shows

Molecular competition drives adult stem cells to specialize, study shows

Adult organisms ranging from fruit flies to humans harbor adult stem cells, some of which renew themselves through cell division while others differentiate into the specialized cells needed to replace worn-out or damaged organs and tissues. Continue reading

Discovery yields master regulator of toxin production in staph infections

Discovery yields master regulator of toxin production in staph infections

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital scientists have discovered an enzyme that regulates production of the toxins that contribute to potentially life-threatening Staphylococcus aureus infections. The study recently appeared in the scientific journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ( PNAS ). Continue reading

Discovery yields master regulator of toxin production in staph infections

Discovery yields master regulator of toxin production in staph infections

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital scientists have discovered an enzyme that regulates production of the toxins that contribute to potentially life-threatening Staphylococcus aureus infections. The study recently appeared in the scientific journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ( PNAS ). Continue reading