List/Grid

physiology Subscribe to physiology

Genetic cause of heart valve defects revealed

Genetic cause of heart valve defects revealed

Heart valve defects are a common cause of death in newborns. Scientists at the University of Bonn and the caesar research center have discovered “Creld1″ is a key gene for the development of heart valves in mice Continue reading

Good bacteria that protects against HIV identified

Good bacteria that protects against HIV identified

Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston by growing vaginal skin cells outside the body and studying the way they interact with “good and bad” bacteria, think they may be able to better identify the good bacteria that protect women from HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections. The health of the human vagina depends on a symbiotic/mutually beneficial relationship with “good” bacteria that live on its surface feeding on products produced by vaginal skin cells. These good bacteria, in turn, create a physical and chemical barrier to bad bacteria and viruses including HIV Continue reading

‘Mini heart’ invented to help return venous blood

‘Mini heart’ invented to help return venous blood

George Washington University (GW) researcher Narine Sarvazyan, Ph.D., has invented a new organ to help return blood flow from veins lacking functional valves. A rhythmically contracting cuff made of cardiac muscle cells surrounds the vein acting as a ‘mini heart’ to aid blood flow through venous segments. The cuff can be made of a patient’s own adult stem cells, eliminating the chance of implant rejection Continue reading

Fast and reliable: New mechanism for speedy transmission in basket cells discovered

Fast and reliable: New mechanism for speedy transmission in basket cells discovered

In his third major research paper since December 2013, IST Austria Professor Peter Jonas together with his collaborator, postdoc Hua Hu, identifies a new subcellular mechanism for reliable, fast transmission in the so-called basket cells of the brain. The results will be published on the website of Nature Neuroscience on March 23, 2014. IST Austria president Thomas Henzinger expressed his delight: “This is an extraordinary streak of publications in major journals which once more emphasizes the outstanding work of Peter Jonas and his group Continue reading

Fast and reliable: New mechanism for speedy transmission in basket cells discovered

Fast and reliable: New mechanism for speedy transmission in basket cells discovered

In his third major research paper since December 2013, IST Austria Professor Peter Jonas together with his collaborator, postdoc Hua Hu, identifies a new subcellular mechanism for reliable, fast transmission in the so-called basket cells of the brain. The results will be published on the website of Nature Neuroscience on March 23, 2014. IST Austria president Thomas Henzinger expressed his delight: “This is an extraordinary streak of publications in major journals which once more emphasizes the outstanding work of Peter Jonas and his group. Continue reading

Microfluidic device with artificial arteries measures drugs’ influence on blood clotting

Microfluidic device with artificial arteries measures drugs’ influence on blood clotting

A new microfluidic method for evaluating drugs commonly used for preventing heart attacks has found that while aspirin can prevent dangerous blood clots in some at-risk patients, it may not be effective in all patients with narrowed arteries. The study, which involved 14 human subjects, used a device that simulated blood flowing through narrowed coronary arteries to assess effects of anti-clotting drugs. Continue reading

Cholesterol transporter structure decoded

Cholesterol transporter structure decoded

The word “cholesterol” is directly linked in most people’s minds with high-fat foods, worrying blood test results, and cardiovascular diseases. However, despite its bad reputation, cholesterol is essential to our wellbeing: It stabilizes cell membranes and is a raw material for the production of different hormones in the cell’s power plants — the mitochondria Continue reading

Cholesterol transporter structure decoded

Cholesterol transporter structure decoded

The word “cholesterol” is directly linked in most people’s minds with high-fat foods, worrying blood test results, and cardiovascular diseases. However, despite its bad reputation, cholesterol is essential to our wellbeing: It stabilizes cell membranes and is a raw material for the production of different hormones in the cell’s power plants — the mitochondria Continue reading

New approach makes cancer cells explode

New approach makes cancer cells explode

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered that a substance called Vacquinol-1 makes cells from glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain tumour, literally explode. When mice were given the substance, which can be given in tablet form, tumour growth was reversed and survival was prolonged. The findings are published in the journal Cell. Continue reading

Scientists ‘herd’ cells in new approach to tissue engineering

Scientists ‘herd’ cells in new approach to tissue engineering

Sometimes it only takes a quick jolt of electricity to get a swarm of cells moving in the right direction. Researchers at UC Berkeley found that an electrical current can be used to orchestrate the flow of a group of cells, an achievement that could establish the basis for more controlled forms of tissue engineering and for potential applications such as “smart bandages” that use electrical stimulation to help heal wounds. In the experiments, described in a study published this week in the journal Nature Materials , the researchers used single layers of epithelial cells, the type of cells that bind together to form robust sheathes in skin, kidneys, cornea and other organs. Continue reading