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High-dose fluticasone effective against eosinophilic esophagitis, study shows

High-dose fluticasone effective against eosinophilic esophagitis, study shows

Results from a clinical trial show that high doses of the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate safely and effectively induce remission in many people with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by high levels of white blood cells called eosinophils. However, some trial participants did not respond to fluticasone even after six months of high-dose treatments, providing evidence that certain people with EoE are steroid-resistant. Continue reading

‘Mississippi Baby’ now has detectable HIV, researchers find

‘Mississippi Baby’ now has detectable HIV, researchers find

The child known as the “Mississippi baby” — an infant seemingly cured of HIV that was reported as a case study of a prolonged remission of HIV infection in The New England Journal of Medicine last fall — now has detectable levels of HIV after more than two years of not taking antiretroviral therapy without evidence of virus, according to the pediatric HIV specialist and researchers involved in the case. “Certainly, this is a disappointing turn of events for this young child, the medical staff involved in the child’s care, and the HIV/AIDS research community,” said NIAID Director Anthony S Continue reading

‘Mississippi Baby’ now has detectable HIV, researchers find

‘Mississippi Baby’ now has detectable HIV, researchers find

The child known as the “Mississippi baby” — an infant seemingly cured of HIV that was reported as a case study of a prolonged remission of HIV infection in The New England Journal of Medicine last fall — now has detectable levels of HIV after more than two years of not taking antiretroviral therapy without evidence of virus, according to the pediatric HIV specialist and researchers involved in the case. “Certainly, this is a disappointing turn of events for this young child, the medical staff involved in the child’s care, and the HIV/AIDS research community,” said NIAID Director Anthony S Continue reading

Major gaps in hepatitis C care identified as new drugs, screening efforts emerge

Major gaps in hepatitis C care identified as new drugs, screening efforts emerge

A new meta-analysis published online in PLOS ONE by infectious disease and epidemiology specialists from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania highlights significant gaps in hepatitis C care that will prove useful as the U.S. health care system continues to see an influx of patients with the disease because of improved screening efforts and new, promising drugs. In the largest study of its kind, the team examined data culled from 10 studies between 2003 and 2013 and found that less than 10 percent of people infected with hepatitis C in the United States — 330,000 of nearly 3.5 million people — were cured (achieved viral suppression) with antiviral hepatitis C treatment Continue reading

Nearly 80 percent of US deaths in first three decades of life are due to unintentional injury or violence

Nearly 80 percent of US deaths in first three decades of life are due to unintentional injury or violence

A new report on unintentional injury and violence in the United States, published in The Lancet as part of a new Series, The health of Americans, has found that prevention strategies across society show a great deal of promise in preventing unintended deaths and injuries. According to the report, by CDC researchers from Atlanta, USA, more Americans between the ages of one and 30 die from injury than from any other cause. Every year, nearly 180,000 people in the USA die from preventable causes such as automobile crashes, drowning, firearm-related injuries, falls, assault, and drug overdoses; equivalent to one injury death every 3 minutes Continue reading

Herpes virus infection drives HIV infection among non-injecting drug users in New York

Herpes virus infection drives HIV infection among non-injecting drug users in New York

HIV and its transmission has long been associated with injecting drug use, where hypodermic syringes are used to administer illicit drugs. Now, a newly reported study by researchers affiliated with New York University’s Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (CDUHR) in the journal PLOS ONE , shows that HIV infection among heterosexual non-injecting drug users (no hypodermic syringe is used; drugs are taken orally or nasally) in New York City (NYC) has now surpassed HIV infection among persons who inject drugs. The study, “HSV-2 Co-Infection as a Driver of HIV Transmission among Heterosexual Non-Injecting Drug Users in New York City,” was conducted among drug users entering the Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment programs in NYC. Continue reading

Proof-of-concept for host-directed tuberculosis therapy established by researchers

Proof-of-concept for host-directed tuberculosis therapy established by researchers

In a new study published in Nature , scientists describe a new type of tuberculosis (TB) treatment that involves manipulating the body’s response to TB bacteria rather than targeting the bacteria themselves, a concept called host-directed therapy. TB remains a major cause of disability and death worldwide as an estimated 8.6 million people fell ill with TB and 1.3 million people died from the disease in 2012, according to the World Health Organization. Although TB is curable, adherence to therapy is difficult as treatment requires taking antibiotic drugs for at least six months and sometimes up to two years. Continue reading

Proof-of-concept for host-directed tuberculosis therapy established by researchers

Proof-of-concept for host-directed tuberculosis therapy established by researchers

In a new study published in Nature , scientists describe a new type of tuberculosis (TB) treatment that involves manipulating the body’s response to TB bacteria rather than targeting the bacteria themselves, a concept called host-directed therapy. TB remains a major cause of disability and death worldwide as an estimated 8.6 million people fell ill with TB and 1.3 million people died from the disease in 2012, according to the World Health Organization. Although TB is curable, adherence to therapy is difficult as treatment requires taking antibiotic drugs for at least six months and sometimes up to two years Continue reading

Noroviruses cause around a fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide

Noroviruses cause around a fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide

Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) across all age groups, responsible for almost a fifth (18%) of all cases worldwide. New estimates, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases , highlight the importance of developing norovirus vaccines, say the authors. “Including data from 48 countries and involving more than 187,000 gastroenteritis cases worldwide, these new estimates are the largest analysis of norovirus infection and disease to date Continue reading

Noroviruses cause around a fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide

Noroviruses cause around a fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide

Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) across all age groups, responsible for almost a fifth (18%) of all cases worldwide. New estimates, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases , highlight the importance of developing norovirus vaccines, say the authors Continue reading