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Medication does not lower risk of fungal infection, death among extremely below weight infants

Medication does not lower risk of fungal infection, death among extremely below weight infants

Use of the antifungal medication fluconazole for six weeks for extremely low birth-weight infants did not significantly reduce the risk of death or invasive candidiasis, a serious infection that occurs when candida (a type of fungus) enters the bloodstream and spreads through the body, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA , a theme issue on child health. This issue is being released early to coincide with the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting. Continue reading

Low rate of cholesterol testing for children, adolescents

Low rate of cholesterol testing for children, adolescents

Although some guidelines recommend lipid screening for children and adolescents of certain ages, data indicate that only about 3 percent are having their cholesterol tested during health visits, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA , a theme issue on child health. This issue is being released early to coincide with the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting. Abnormal lipid values occur in 1 in 5 U.S Continue reading

Brain, cognitive reserve protect long-term against cognitive decline, MS researchers find

Brain, cognitive reserve protect long-term against cognitive decline, MS researchers find

Multiple sclerosis researchers have found that brain reserve and cognitive reserve confer a long-term protective effect against cognitive decline. James Sumowski, PhD, lead author of the article, and John DeLuca, PhD, are at Kessler Foundation. Co-authors are from the Manhattan Memory Center, New York, NY, the San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy, and the University of Belgrade, Serbia. Continue reading

Rural microbes could boost city dwellers’ health, study finds

Rural microbes could boost city dwellers’ health, study finds

The greater prevalence of asthma, allergies and other chronic inflammatory disorders among people of lower socioeconomic status might be due in part to their reduced exposure to the microbes that thrive in rural environments, according to a new scientific paper co-authored by a University of Colorado Boulder researcher. The article, published in the journal Clinical & Experimental Immunology , argues that people living in urban centers who have less access to green spaces may be more apt to have chronic inflammation, a condition caused by immune system dysfunction Continue reading

Scientists report success growing cartilage to reconstruct nostrils and implanting tissue-engineered vaginal organs into humans

Scientists report success growing cartilage to reconstruct nostrils and implanting tissue-engineered vaginal organs into humans

Two new articles published in The Lancet report the first ever successful operations in humans to reconstruct the alar wings of the nose (nostrils) (Martin et al ), and to implant tissue-engineered vaginal organs in women with a rare syndrome that causes the vagina to be underdeveloped or absent (Atala et al ), in both cases using the patients’ own tissue. In one paper, led by Professor Ivan Martin from the University of Basel in Switzerland, scientists report having engineered a human cartilage graft from patients’ own nasal septum cartilage cells to successfully rebuild the nostrils (alar lobule) of five individuals whose noses were damaged by skin cancer Continue reading

Scientists report success growing cartilage to reconstruct nostrils and implanting tissue-engineered vaginal organs into humans

Scientists report success growing cartilage to reconstruct nostrils and implanting tissue-engineered vaginal organs into humans

Two new articles published in The Lancet report the first ever successful operations in humans to reconstruct the alar wings of the nose (nostrils) (Martin et al ), and to implant tissue-engineered vaginal organs in women with a rare syndrome that causes the vagina to be underdeveloped or absent (Atala et al ), in both cases using the patients’ own tissue. In one paper, led by Professor Ivan Martin from the University of Basel in Switzerland, scientists report having engineered a human cartilage graft from patients’ own nasal septum cartilage cells to successfully rebuild the nostrils (alar lobule) of five individuals whose noses were damaged by skin cancer Continue reading

New general concept for treatment of cancer

New general concept for treatment of cancer

A team of researchers from five Swedish universities, led by Karolinska Institutet and the Science for Life Laboratory, have identified a new way of treating cancer. The concept is presented in the journal Nature and is based on inhibiting a specific enzyme called MTH1, which cancer cells, unlike normal cells, require for survival. Without this enzyme, oxidized nucleotides are incorporated into DNA, resulting in lethal DNA double-strand breaks in cancer cells. Continue reading

Medication does not reduce risk of recurrent cardiac events among patients with diabetes

Medication does not reduce risk of recurrent cardiac events among patients with diabetes

Use of the drug aleglitazar, which has shown the ability to lower glucose levels and have favorable effects on cholesterol, did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack or stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes and recent heart attack or unstable angina, according to a JAMA study released online to coincide with presentation at the 2014 American College of Cardiology Scientific Sessions. Cardiovascular disease remains the dominant cause of death among patients with type 2 diabetes. No drug therapy specifically directed against diabetes nor strategy for tight glucose control has been shown to unequivocally reduce the rate of cardiovascular complications in this population, according to background information in the article. Continue reading

Analysis supports use of risk equations to guide statin therapy

Analysis supports use of risk equations to guide statin therapy

In an analysis of almost 11,000 patients, an assessment of equations that help guide whether a patient should begin taking a statin (cholesterol lowering medication) found that observed and predicted 5-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks were similar, suggesting that these equations are helpful for clinical decision making, according to a JAMA study released online to coincide with presentation at the 2014 American College of Cardiology Scientific Sessions. Continue reading

Analysis supports use of risk equations to guide statin therapy

Analysis supports use of risk equations to guide statin therapy

In an analysis of almost 11,000 patients, an assessment of equations that help guide whether a patient should begin taking a statin (cholesterol lowering medication) found that observed and predicted 5-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks were similar, suggesting that these equations are helpful for clinical decision making, according to a JAMA study released online to coincide with presentation at the 2014 American College of Cardiology Scientific Sessions. The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) recently published the 2013 Guideline on the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk. As part of this guideline, a group of experts developed the Pooled Cohort risk equations, which were designed to estimate 10-year risk for nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI; heart attack), coronary heart disease (CHD) death, and nonfatal or fatal stroke, according to background information in the article Continue reading