List/Grid

Tag Archives: biology

First detailed picture of cancer-related cell enzyme in action on chromosome unit

First detailed picture of cancer-related cell enzyme in action on chromosome unit

A landmark study to be published in the October 30, 2014 print edition of the journal Nature provides new insight into the function of an enzyme related to the BRCA1 breast cancer protein. Continue reading

Scientists generate first human stomach tissue in lab with stem cells

Scientists generate first human stomach tissue in lab with stem cells

Scientists used pluripotent stem cells to generate functional, three-dimensional human stomach tissue in a laboratory — creating an unprecedented tool for researching the development and diseases of an organ central to several public health crises, ranging from cancer to diabetes. Scientists at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center report Oct. 29 in Nature they used human pluripotent stem cells — which can become any cell type in the body — to grow a miniature version of the stomach Continue reading

Fewer women than men receive hemodialysis treatment

Fewer women than men receive hemodialysis treatment

Fewer women than men are treated with dialysis for end-stage kidney disease, according to a new comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in treatment published this week in PLOS Medicine . The results of the study, conducted by Manfred Hecking with Friedrich Port and colleagues from Arbor Research Collaborative for Health in Ann Arbor, Michigan, suggest that these findings call for further detailed study for the reasons underlying the sex-specific differences in end-stage renal disease treatment. Chronic kidney disease often progresses to end-stage renal disease, which is treated by regular hemodialysis (a process in which blood is purified by passing it through a filtration machine) or by kidney transplantation. Continue reading

Traumatic brain injury associated with increased dementia risk in older adults

Traumatic brain injury associated with increased dementia risk in older adults

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) appears to be associated with an increased risk of dementia in adults 55 years and older, according to a study published online by JAMA Neurology . Controversy exists about whether there is a link between a single TBI and the risk of developing dementia because of conflicting study results Continue reading

First atlas of body clock gene expression informs timing of drug delivery

First atlas of body clock gene expression informs timing of drug delivery

A new effort mapping 24-hr patterns of expression for thousands of genes in 12 different mouse organs — five years in the making — provides important clues about how the role of timing may influence the way drugs work in the body. A study detailing this veritable “atlas” of gene oscillations, never before described in mammals, is published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Continue reading

Clues to genetics of congenital heart defects emerge from Down syndrome study

Clues to genetics of congenital heart defects emerge from Down syndrome study

Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality in humans, involving a third copy of all or part of chromosome 21. In addition to intellectual disability, individuals with Down syndrome have a high risk of congenital heart defects. However, not all people with Down syndrome have them — about half have structurally normal hearts Continue reading

New dent in HIV-1′s armor: promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment

New dent in HIV-1′s armor: promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment

Like a slumbering dragon, HIV can lay dormant in a person’s cells for years, evading medical treatments only to wake up and strike at a later time, quickly replicating itself and destroying the immune system. Scientists at the Salk Institute have uncovered a new protein that participates in active HIV replication, as detailed in the latest issue of Genes & Development . The new protein, called Ssu72, is part of a switch used to awaken HIV-1 (the most common type of HIV) from its slumber. Continue reading

Growing a blood vessel in a week

Growing a blood vessel in a week

The technology for creating new tissues from stem cells has taken a giant leap forward. Three tablespoons of blood are all that is needed to grow a brand new blood vessel in just seven days. Continue reading

In orbit or on Earth, implantable device will be commanded to release therapeutic drugs remotely

In orbit or on Earth, implantable device will be commanded to release therapeutic drugs remotely

Houston Methodist Research Institute scientists will receive about $1.25 million from the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space to develop an implantable device that delivers therapeutic drugs at a rate guided by remote control. Continue reading

Designer ‘barrel’ proteins created

Designer ‘barrel’ proteins created

Proteins are long linear molecules that fold up to form well-defined 3D shapes. These 3D molecular architectures are essential for biological functions such as the elasticity of skin, the digestion of food, and the transport of oxygen in blood Continue reading