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Tag Archives: Development

BPA and related chemicals: Human safety thresholds for endocrine disrupting chemicals may be inaccurate

BPA and related chemicals: Human safety thresholds for endocrine disrupting chemicals may be inaccurate

Human and rat testes respond differently to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as BPA in two thirds of all cases, according to a recent review. As human safety levels are extrapolated from rodent data, the study could lead to a re-evaluation of the acceptable daily intake for many endocrine disruptors. Continue reading

Well-known cancer gene NRAS produces 5 variants, study finds

Well-known cancer gene NRAS produces 5 variants, study finds

A new study shows that a gene discovered 30 years ago and now known to play a fundamental role in cancer development produces five different gene variants (called isoforms), rather than just the one original form, as thought. Continue reading

Well-known cancer gene NRAS produces 5 variants, study finds

Well-known cancer gene NRAS produces 5 variants, study finds

A new study shows that a gene discovered 30 years ago and now known to play a fundamental role in cancer development produces five different gene variants (called isoforms), rather than just the one original form, as thought. The study of the NRAS gene by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center — Arthur G. Continue reading

Parental obesity and autism risk in the child: Is paternal obesity a greater risk factor than maternal obesity?

Parental obesity and autism risk in the child: Is paternal obesity a greater risk factor than maternal obesity?

Several studies have looked at possible links between maternal obesity during pregnancy and the risk of developmental disorders in the child. However, paternal obesity could be a greater risk factor than maternal obesity, according to a new study from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. As the first researcher to study the role of paternal obesity in autism, Dr. Continue reading

Work with small peptide chains may revolutionize study of enzymes, diseases

Work with small peptide chains may revolutionize study of enzymes, diseases

Chemists in The College of Arts and Sciences have, for the first time, created enzyme-like activity using peptides that are only seven amino acids long. Continue reading

Genetic testing beneficial in melanoma treatment

Genetic testing beneficial in melanoma treatment

Genetic screening of cancer can help doctors customize treatments so that patients with melanoma have the best chance of beating it, according to the results of a clinical trial by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI), a partner with UPMC CancerCenter. The trial, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), will be presented Monday at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2014. It showed that the cancer immune therapy drug ipilimumab appears most likely to prevent recurrence in patients whose cancer shows high expression of immune-related genes Continue reading

What bank voles can teach us about prion disease transmission and neurodegeneration

What bank voles can teach us about prion disease transmission and neurodegeneration

When cannibals ate brains of people who died from prion disease, many of them fell ill with the fatal neurodegenerative disease as well. Likewise, when cows were fed protein contaminated with bovine prions, many of them developed mad cow disease. On the other hand, transmission of prions between species, for example from cows, sheep, or deer to humans, is — fortunately — inefficient, and only a small proportion of exposed recipients become sick within their lifetimes. Continue reading

What bank voles can teach us about prion disease transmission and neurodegeneration

What bank voles can teach us about prion disease transmission and neurodegeneration

When cannibals ate brains of people who died from prion disease, many of them fell ill with the fatal neurodegenerative disease as well. Likewise, when cows were fed protein contaminated with bovine prions, many of them developed mad cow disease. On the other hand, transmission of prions between species, for example from cows, sheep, or deer to humans, is — fortunately — inefficient, and only a small proportion of exposed recipients become sick within their lifetimes. Continue reading

New general concept for treatment of cancer

New general concept for treatment of cancer

A team of researchers from five Swedish universities, led by Karolinska Institutet and the Science for Life Laboratory, have identified a new way of treating cancer. The concept is presented in the journal Nature and is based on inhibiting a specific enzyme called MTH1, which cancer cells, unlike normal cells, require for survival. Without this enzyme, oxidized nucleotides are incorporated into DNA, resulting in lethal DNA double-strand breaks in cancer cells. Continue reading

’3-D’ test could reduce reliance on animals for testing asthma and allergy medications

’3-D’ test could reduce reliance on animals for testing asthma and allergy medications

To determine whether new medicines are safe and effective for humans, researchers must first test them in animals, which is costly and time-consuming, as well as ethically challenging. In a study published in ACS’ journal Molecular Pharmaceutics , scientists report that they’ve developed a simple, “3D” laboratory method to test asthma and allergy medications that mimics what happens in the body, which could help reduce the need for animal testing. Continue reading