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Tag Archives: National

Brain development in schizophrenia strays from normal path

Brain development in schizophrenia strays from normal path

Schizophrenia is generally considered to be a disorder of brain development and it shares many risk factors, both genetic and environmental, with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and intellectual disability. The normal path for brain development is determined by the combined effects of a complex network of genes and a wide range of environmental factors. Continue reading

Zebrafish Model of a Learning and Memory Disorder Shows Better Way to Target Treatment

Zebrafish Model of a Learning and Memory Disorder Shows Better Way to Target Treatment

Using a zebrafish model of a human genetic disease called neurofibromatosis (NF1), a team from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania has found that the learning and memory components of the disorder are distinct features that will likely need different treatment approaches. They published their results this month in Cell Reports . Continue reading

Diverse gut bacteria associated with favorable ratio of estrogen metabolites

Diverse gut bacteria associated with favorable ratio of estrogen metabolites

Postmenopausal women with diverse gut bacteria exhibit a more favorable ratio of estrogen metabolites, which is associated with reduced risk for breast cancer, compared to women with less microbial variation, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism ( JCEM ). Since the 1970s, it has been known that in addition to supporting digestion, the intestinal bacteria that make up the gut microbiome influence how women’s bodies process estrogen, the primary female sex hormone. The colonies of bacteria determine whether estrogen and the fragments left behind after the hormone is processed continue circulating through the body or are expelled through urine and feces. Continue reading

Diverse gut bacteria associated with favorable ratio of estrogen metabolites

Diverse gut bacteria associated with favorable ratio of estrogen metabolites

Postmenopausal women with diverse gut bacteria exhibit a more favorable ratio of estrogen metabolites, which is associated with reduced risk for breast cancer, compared to women with less microbial variation, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism ( JCEM ). Since the 1970s, it has been known that in addition to supporting digestion, the intestinal bacteria that make up the gut microbiome influence how women’s bodies process estrogen, the primary female sex hormone. Continue reading

Multiple sclerosis researchers find role for working memory in cognitive reserve

Multiple sclerosis researchers find role for working memory in cognitive reserve

Kessler Foundation scientists have shown that working memory may be an underlying mechanism of cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis (MS). This finding informs the relationships between working memory, intellectual enrichment (the proxy measure for cognitive reserve) and long-term memory in this population. “Working memory mediates the relationship between intellectual enrichment and long-term memory in multiple sclerosis: An exploratory analysis of cognitive reserve”  was published online ahead of print by the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society on July 14. Continue reading

Rapid and durable protection against Ebola virus with new vaccine regimens

Rapid and durable protection against Ebola virus with new vaccine regimens

One shot of an experimental vaccine made from two Ebola virus gene segments incorporated into a chimpanzee cold virus vector (called chimp adenovirus type 3 or ChAd3) protected all four macaque monkeys exposed to high levels of Ebola virus 5 weeks after inoculation, report National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and their collaborators. The ability of the ChAd3 Ebola virus vaccine to elicit rapid protection in monkeys is notable as the world health community battles an ongoing Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. Continue reading

In one of nature’s innovations, a single cell smashes and rebuilds its own genome

In one of nature’s innovations, a single cell smashes and rebuilds its own genome

Life can be so intricate and novel that even a single cell can pack a few surprises, according to a study led by Princeton University researchers. The pond-dwelling, single-celled organism Oxytricha trifallax has the remarkable ability to break its own DNA into nearly a quarter-million pieces and rapidly reassemble those pieces when it’s time to mate, the researchers report in the journal Cell. Continue reading

Past sexual assault triples risk of future assault for college women

Past sexual assault triples risk of future assault for college women

Disturbing news for women on college campuses: a new study from the University at Buffalo Research Institute on Addictions (RIA) indicates that female college students who are victims of sexual assault are at a much higher risk of becoming victims again. In fact, researchers found that college women who experienced severe sexual victimization were three times more likely than their peers to experience severe sexual victimization the following year Continue reading

What is keeping your kids up at night? Turning off electronics helps everyone sleep better

What is keeping your kids up at night? Turning off electronics helps everyone sleep better

Sleep, or lack thereof, and technology often go hand in hand when it comes to school-aged kids. Nearly three out of four children (72%) between the ages of 6 and 17 have at least one electronic device in their bedrooms while sleeping, according to a National Sleep Foundation survey Continue reading

Sex hormone levels in blood linked to risk of sudden cardiac arrest

Sex hormone levels in blood linked to risk of sudden cardiac arrest

Measuring the levels of sex hormones in patients’ blood may identify patients likely to suffer a sudden cardiac arrest, a heart rhythm disorder that is fatal in 95 percent of patients. Continue reading