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Tag Archives: Physiology

Scientists generate first human stomach tissue in lab with stem cells

Scientists generate first human stomach tissue in lab with stem cells

Scientists used pluripotent stem cells to generate functional, three-dimensional human stomach tissue in a laboratory — creating an unprecedented tool for researching the development and diseases of an organ central to several public health crises, ranging from cancer to diabetes. Scientists at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center report Oct. 29 in Nature they used human pluripotent stem cells — which can become any cell type in the body — to grow a miniature version of the stomach Continue reading

Governments should take active lead to create healthy food environments to prevent cardiovascular disease

Governments should take active lead to create healthy food environments to prevent cardiovascular disease

Canadian health organizations are calling upon governments to take a leadership role in creating healthy food environments. They say that implementing strategies that facilitate access to affordable healthy foods and beverages in places where Canadians work, live, and play could play a key role in preventing diet-related disease and health risk such as obesity and hypertension, and ultimately improve cardiovascular health. This call for action is published in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology Continue reading

Bipolar disorder discovery at the nano level

Bipolar disorder discovery at the nano level

A nano-sized discovery by Northwestern Medicine ® scientists helps explain how bipolar disorder affects the brain and could one day lead to new drug therapies to treat the mental illness. Scientists used a new super-resolution imaging method — the same method recognized with the 2014 Nobel Prize in chemistry — to peer deep into brain tissue from mice with bipolar-like behaviors. Continue reading

Improving bladder function among people with spinal cord injuries

Improving bladder function among people with spinal cord injuries

People who have suffered spinal cord injuries are often susceptible to bladder infections, and those infections can cause kidney damage and even death. New UCLA research may go a long way toward solving the problem. A team of scientists studied 10 paralyzed rats that were trained daily for six weeks with epidural stimulation of the spinal cord and five rats that were untrained and did not receive the stimulation. Continue reading

Sugared soda consumption, cell aging associated in new study

Sugared soda consumption, cell aging associated in new study

Sugar-sweetened soda consumption might promote disease independently from its role in obesity, according to UC San Francisco researchers who found in a new study that drinking sugary drinks was associated with cell aging. The study revealed that telomeres — the protective units of DNA that cap the ends of chromosomes in cells — were shorter in the white blood cells of survey participants who reported drinking more soda. Continue reading

Conspicuous tRNA lookalikes riddle the human genome

Conspicuous tRNA lookalikes riddle the human genome

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are ancient workhorse molecules and part of the cellular process that creates the proteins, critical building blocks of life that keep a cell running smoothly. A new discovery suggests that the number of human genomic loci that might be coding for tRNAs is nearly double what is currently known. Most of the newly identified loci resemble the sequences of mitochondrial tRNAs suggesting unexpected new links between the human nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, links that are not currently understood Continue reading

Nobel Prize for brain’s GPS discovery

Nobel Prize for brain’s GPS discovery

unable to retrieve full-text contentThe Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine has been awarded to three scientists who discovered the brain’s “GPS system”. Continue reading

New pathway linking the brain to high blood pressure identified

New pathway linking the brain to high blood pressure identified

New research by scientists at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UM SOM) and the Ottawa Heart Institute has uncovered a new pathway by which the brain uses an unusual steroid to control blood pressure. The study, which also suggests new approaches for treating high blood pressure and heart failure, appears today in the journal Public Library of Science (PLOS) One . “This research gives us an entirely new way of understanding how the brain and the cardiovascular system work together,” said Dr. Continue reading

Scientists identify which genes are active in muscles of men, women

Scientists identify which genes are active in muscles of men, women

If you want your doctor to know what goes wrong with your muscles because of age, disease or injury, it’s a good idea to know what “normal” actually is. Continue reading

Spastic paraplegia: New light shed on cause

Spastic paraplegia: New light shed on cause

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have discovered that a gene mutation linked to hereditary spastic paraplegia, a disabling neurological disorder, interferes with the normal breakdown of triglyceride fat molecules in the brain. The TSRI researchers found large droplets of triglycerides within the neurons of mice modeling the disease. The findings, reported this week online ahead of print by the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , point the way to potential therapies and showcase an investigative strategy that should be useful in determining the biochemical causes of other genetic illnesses. Continue reading