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Tear duct implant effective at reducing pain, inflammation in cataract surgery patients

Tear duct implant effective at reducing pain, inflammation in cataract surgery patients

The first tear duct implant developed to treat inflammation and pain following cataract surgery has been shown to be a reliable alternative to medicated eye drops, which are the current standard of care, according to a study presented  at AAO 2014, the 118th annual meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. The device, known as a punctum plug, automatically delivers the correct amount of postoperative medication in patients, potentially solving the issue of poor compliance with self-administering eye drops. After cataract surgery, most patients are prescribed topical eye drops to reduce ocular inflammation that often occurs after surgery, but many do not or are not able to comply with the recommended dosing regimen. Continue reading

Chewing gum while fasting before surgery is safe, study finds

Chewing gum while fasting before surgery is safe, study finds

It is well known that patients should avoid eating and drinking before surgery to help prevent complications while under anesthesia. But is it safe to chew gum? Continue reading

Pneumococcal vaccine reduces antibiotic-resistant infections in children by 62 percent

Pneumococcal vaccine reduces antibiotic-resistant infections in children by 62 percent

The pneumococcal vaccine recommended for young children not only prevents illness and death, but also has dramatically reduced severe antibiotic-resistant infections, suggests nationwide research being presented at IDWeek 2014™. Continue reading

Pneumococcal vaccine reduces antibiotic-resistant infections in children by 62 percent

Pneumococcal vaccine reduces antibiotic-resistant infections in children by 62 percent

The pneumococcal vaccine recommended for young children not only prevents illness and death, but also has dramatically reduced severe antibiotic-resistant infections, suggests nationwide research being presented at IDWeek 2014™. Pneumococcal infection — which can cause everything from ear infections to pneumonia and meningitis — is the most common vaccine-preventable bacterial cause of death Continue reading

Randomized trial examines community-acquired pneumonia treatments

Randomized trial examines community-acquired pneumonia treatments

In a randomized clinical trial of antibiotic treatments for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), researchers did not find that monotherapy with β-lactam alone was worse than a combination therapy with a macrolide in patients hospitalized with moderately severe pneumonia, write author Nicolas Garin, M.D., Hôpital Riviera-Chablais, Switzerland, and colleagues. CAP is responsible for a high burden of deaths, hospitalizations and health care costs. Continue reading

Dietary recommendations may be tied to increased greenhouse gas emissions

Dietary recommendations may be tied to increased greenhouse gas emissions

If Americans altered their menus to conform to federal dietary recommendations, emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases tied to agricultural production could increase significantly, according to a new study by University of Michigan researchers. Martin Heller and Gregory Keoleian of U-M’s Center for Sustainable Systems looked at the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of about 100 foods, as well as the potential effects of shifting Americans to a diet recommended by the U.S Continue reading

Dosage of HIV drug may be ineffective for half of African-Americans

Dosage of HIV drug may be ineffective for half of African-Americans

Many African-Americans may not be getting effective doses of the HIV drug maraviroc, a new study from Johns Hopkins suggests. Continue reading

Supplements of calcium, vitamin D may have too much for some older women

Supplements of calcium, vitamin D may have too much for some older women

Calcium and vitamin D are commonly recommended for older women, but the usual supplements may send calcium excretion and blood levels too high for some women, shows a new study published online in Menopause , the journal of The North American Menopause Society. This randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 163 older (ages 57 to 90) white women whose vitamin D levels were too low. The women took calcium citrate tablets to meet their recommended intake of 1,200 mg/day, and they took various doses of vitamin D, ranging from 400 to 4,800 IU/day Continue reading

Responses with crizotinib in MET-amplified lung cancer show new targetable form of disease

Responses with crizotinib in MET-amplified lung cancer show new targetable form of disease

A study presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting 2014 reports the results of a first-in-human, phase 1 dose escalation trial of crizotinib (XALKORI) in 14 patients with advanced, MET-amplified non-small cell lung cancer (NCT00585195). In 2011, the drug crizotinib earned accelerated approval by the US FDA to target the subset of advanced non-small cell lung cancers caused by rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, and subsequently was granted regular approval in 2013 Continue reading

New standards proposed for gauging muscle decline in older adults

New standards proposed for gauging muscle decline in older adults

Sarcopenia — the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength — may put up to 50 percent of seniors at greater risk for disability, yet there is no consensus within the medical community for how this condition should be measured. However, a new collection of articles appearing in The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences (volume 69, number 5) lays out an empirically derived set of criteria for diagnosing sarcopenia. These recommendations are a result of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Consortium Sarcopenia Project, which includes scientists and grantees from the National Institutes of Health, along with other partners in government, academia, and the private sector. Continue reading