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Diagnostic criteria for Christianson Syndrome

Diagnostic criteria for Christianson Syndrome

Because the severe autism-like condition Christianson Syndrome was only first reported in 1999 and some symptoms take more than a decade to appear, families and doctors urgently need fundamental information about it. Continue reading

Offering option of initial HIV care at home increases use of antiretroviral therapy

Offering option of initial HIV care at home increases use of antiretroviral therapy

LSTM Researchers found that offering adults in Malawi optional home initiation of care following HIV self-testing resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with standard HIV care. The results are part of a study that was funded by the Wellcome Trust and published in the July 23/30 issue of JAMA , which is HIV/AIDS themed and released early to coincide with the International AIDS Conference taking place in Melbourne, Australia next week. In 2012 it was estimated that 35 million people worldwide were living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Continue reading

Growth hormone analog may reduce risk of fatty liver disease in HIV-infected patients

Growth hormone analog may reduce risk of fatty liver disease in HIV-infected patients

In a preliminary study, HIV-infected patients with excess abdominal fat who received the growth hormone-releasing hormone analog tesamorelin for 6 months experienced modest reductions in liver fat, according to a study in the July 23/30 issue of JAMA , a theme issue on HIV/AIDS. Patients infected with HIV demonstrate a high prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, estimated at 30 percent to 40 percent Continue reading

New clues to brain’s wiring found by scientists

New clues to brain’s wiring found by scientists

New research provides an intriguing glimpse into the processes that establish connections between nerve cells in the brain. Continue reading

Food learning theory for obese women

Food learning theory for obese women

unable to retrieve full-text contentObese women may have a “food learning impairment” that could explain their attitude to food, research from Yale School of Medicine suggests. Continue reading

Alcohol-programming outreach is especially important for female Black, Latina drinkers

Alcohol-programming outreach is especially important for female Black, Latina drinkers

Very few national studies have examined racial/ethnic disparities in the use of alcohol services. In addition, little is known about whether racial/ethnic disparities generalize across genders, and what factors may account for any disparities. A study of the combined impact of race/ethnicity and gender on alcohol services utilization has found a pattern of lower services utilization among Latinos and Blacks, versus Whites, and women, versus men Continue reading

Making a mental match: Pairing mechanical device with stroke patients

Making a mental match: Pairing mechanical device with stroke patients

The repetitive facilitation exercise (RFE) is one of the most common rehabilitation tactics for stroke patients attempting to regain wrist movement. Stroke hemiparesis individuals are not able to move that part of their body because they cannot create a strong enough neural signal that travels from the brain to the wrist. With RFE, however, patients get a mental boost. Continue reading

Marijuana dependence alters the brain’s response to drug paraphernalia

Marijuana dependence alters the brain’s response to drug paraphernalia

New research from The University of Texas at Dallas demonstrates that drug paraphernalia triggers the reward areas of the brain differently in dependent and non-dependent marijuana users. The study, published July 1 in Drug and Alcohol Dependence , demonstrated that different areas of the brain activated when dependent and non-dependent users were exposed to drug-related cues. The 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health shows marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States. Continue reading

Inherited ‘memory’ of poor nutrition during pregnancy passed through sperm of male offspring

Inherited ‘memory’ of poor nutrition during pregnancy passed through sperm of male offspring

When a pregnant mother is undernourished, her child is at a greater than average risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes, in part due to so-called ‘epigenetic’ effects. A new study in mice demonstrates that this ‘memory’ of nutrition during pregnancy can be passed through sperm of male offspring to the next generation, increasing risk of disease for her grandchildren as well — in other words, to adapt an old maxim, ‘you are what your grandmother ate’ Continue reading

On the link between periodontitis and atherosclerosis

On the link between periodontitis and atherosclerosis

Chronic oral infection with the periodontal disease pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis , not only causes local inflammation of the gums leading to tooth loss but also is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. A study published on July 10th in PLOS Pathogens now reveals how the pathogen evades the immune system to induce inflammation beyond the oral cavity Continue reading