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A way to kill chemo-resistant ovarian cancer cells: Cut down its protector

A way to kill chemo-resistant ovarian cancer cells: Cut down its protector

Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer, claiming the lives of more than 50% of women who are diagnosed with the disease. A study involving Ottawa and Taiwan researchers, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) , provides new insight into why ovarian cancer is often resistant to chemotherapy, as well as a potential way to improve its diagnosis and treatment. It is estimated that 2,700 Canadian women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2014 and that 1,750 Canadian women will die from the disease, according to Ovarian Cancer Canada. Continue reading

Realizing the promise of education: An effective early intervention program for substance exposed babies and toddlers

Realizing the promise of education: An effective early intervention program for substance exposed babies and toddlers

Two decades after its initiation, the University of Miami (UM) Linda Ray Intervention Program for substance-exposed babies and toddlers demonstrates long-term success. The program is designed to help children from birth to three years of age who are developmentally delayed, prenatally exposed to drugs and often with the additional risk of maltreatment, ultimately achieve their developmental milestones and be ready to enter kindergarten ready to learn. The program started in 1993 as an innovative partnership between the UM Linda Ray Intervention Center (LRIC), Miami-Dade Public Schools, Early Steps, Children’s Medical Services, and the Florida Diagnostic and Learning Resources System (FDLRS) and has since expanded to partner with the Juvenile Court in Miami. Continue reading

Single statistic can strengthen public support for traffic safety laws

Single statistic can strengthen public support for traffic safety laws

Public support for effective road safety laws, already solid, can be strengthened by a single number: a statistic that quantifies the traffic-related injury risks associated with a given law, according to a new study from the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The study, published in the September issue of Accident Analysis & Prevention , surveyed 2,397 adults nationwide about their attitudes toward four types of road-safety laws — mandatory ignition interlock installation for people convicted of driving under the influence (DUI), the use of red-light cameras in school zones, a requirement that in-vehicle information entertainment systems be disabled when a car is moving and the mandatory use of bicycle helmets for children under 16. Continue reading

New analysis of human genetic history reveals female dominance

New analysis of human genetic history reveals female dominance

Female populations have been larger than male populations throughout human history, according to research published today in the open access journal Investigative Genetics . The research used a new technique to obtain higher quality paternal genetic information to analyze the demographic history of males and females in worldwide populations Continue reading

Alcohol consumption influenced by genes, research shows

Alcohol consumption influenced by genes, research shows

How people perceive and taste alcohol depends on genetic factors, and that influences whether they “like” and consume alcoholic beverages, according to researchers in Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences. Continue reading

Cardiorespiratory fitness is often misdiagnosed

Cardiorespiratory fitness is often misdiagnosed

A recent study by the University of Eastern Finland shows that scaling maximal oxygen uptake and maximal workload by body weight confounds measures of cardiorespiratory fitness. It has been a common practice in exercise testing to scale the results by body weight and, according to researchers, this practice should be abandoned. More reliable data on cardiorespiratory fitness can be observed by using lean mass proportional measures Continue reading

Higher risk of autism found in children born at short and long interpregnancy intervals

Higher risk of autism found in children born at short and long interpregnancy intervals

A study published in the MONTH 2014 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry found that children who were conceived either less than 1 year or more than 5 years after the birth of their prior sibling were more likely to be diagnosed with autism than children conceived following an interval of 2-5 years. Using data from the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism (FIPS-A), a group of researchers led by Keely Cheslack-Postava, PhD, of Columbia University, analyzed records from 7371 children born between 1987 and 2005 in Finland Continue reading

Skin cells can be engineered into pulmonary valves for pediatric patients

Skin cells can be engineered into pulmonary valves for pediatric patients

Researchers have found a way to take a pediatric patient’s skin cells, reprogram the skin cells to function as heart valvular cells, and then use the cells as part of a tissue-engineered pulmonary valve. A proof of concept study published in the September 2014 issue of The Annals of Thoracic Surgery provides more detail on this scientific development. “Current valve replacements cannot grow with patients as they age, but the use of a patient-specific pulmonary valve would introduce a ‘living’ valvular construct that should grow with the patient. Continue reading

Infant cooing, babbling linked to hearing ability, researcher finds

Infant cooing, babbling linked to hearing ability, researcher finds

Infants’ vocalizations throughout the first year follow a set of predictable steps from crying and cooing to forming syllables and first words. However, previous research had not addressed how the amount of vocalizations may differ between hearing and deaf infants. Now, University of Missouri research shows that infant vocalizations are primarily motivated by infants’ ability to hear their own babbling. Continue reading

Study questions accuracy of lung cancer screens in some geographic regions

Study questions accuracy of lung cancer screens in some geographic regions

A new analysis of published studies found that FDG-PET technology is less accurate in diagnosing lung cancer versus benign disease in regions where infections like histoplasmosis or tuberculosis are common. Continue reading