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Tag Archives: Work

Mobile DNA test for HIV under development

Mobile DNA test for HIV under development

Rice University bioengineers are developing a simple, highly accurate test to detect signs of HIV and its progress in patients in resource-poor settings. The current gold standard to diagnose HIV in infants and to monitor viral load depends on lab equipment and technical expertise generally available only in clinics, said Rice bioengineer Rebecca Richards-Kortum Continue reading

Why are older women more vulnerable to breast cancer? New clues

Why are older women more vulnerable to breast cancer? New clues

Scientists from the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have gained more insights into why older women are more susceptible to breast cancer. They found that as women age, the cells responsible for maintaining healthy breast tissue stop responding to their immediate surroundings, including mechanical cues that should prompt them to suppress nearby tumors. Their work sheds light on how aging alters cellular and molecular functions, and how these changes contribute to the prevalence of breast cancer in older women Continue reading

How the ‘long shadow’ of an inner city childhood affects adult success

How the ‘long shadow’ of an inner city childhood affects adult success

In a groundbreaking study, Johns Hopkins University researchers followed nearly 800 Baltimore school children for a quarter of a century and discovered that their fates were substantially determined by the family they were born into. “A family’s resources and the doors they open cast a long shadow over children’s life trajectories,” Johns Hopkins sociologist Karl Alexander says in a forthcoming book, The Long Shadow: Family Background, Disadvantaged Urban Youth and the Transition to Adulthood. “This view is at odds with the popular ethos that we are makers of our own fortune.” Alexander, who joined Johns Hopkins in 1972 and retires this summer, spent nearly his entire career on the study, along with fellow researchers and co-authors Doris Entwisle and Linda Olson Continue reading

Risk of death highest following surgery in afternoons, at weekends, and in February

Risk of death highest following surgery in afternoons, at weekends, and in February

New research presented at this year’s Euroanaesthesia show that on weekends, in the afternoons and in February are the times when the risk of death following surgery is the highest. The research is by Dr Felix Kork and Professor Claudia Spies, Charité — University Medicine Berlin, Germany and colleagues. Hospital mortality is subject to day-night, weekly and seasonal variability. Continue reading

Zinc deficiency before conception disrupts fetal development

Zinc deficiency before conception disrupts fetal development

Female mice deprived of dietary zinc for a relatively short time before conception experienced fertility and pregnancy problems and had smaller, less-developed fetuses than mice that ingested zinc during the same times, according to researchers in Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences. Continue reading

Light coaxes stem cells to repair teeth: Noninvasive laser therapy could radically shift dental treatment

Light coaxes stem cells to repair teeth: Noninvasive laser therapy could radically shift dental treatment

A Harvard-led team is the first to demonstrate the ability to use low-power light to trigger stem cells inside the body to regenerate tissue, an advance they reported in Science Translational Medicine . Continue reading

Making research findings freely available is an essential aid to medical progress, experts say

Making research findings freely available is an essential aid to medical progress, experts say

In a PLOS Medicine guest editorial, Paul Glasziou, Professor of Evidence-Based Medicine at Bond University in Australia, explores how open access publications could help moderate and reduce the vast waste of global medical research. Continuing on from his previous work, which highlighted how most of the world’s expenditure on medical research was thrown away, Glasziou outlines how bad the situation is and suggests how it might be improved. Subscription-based academic journals make money by through copyrights assigned by authors to publishers who lock the articles behind paywalls Continue reading

Making research findings freely available is an essential aid to medical progress, experts say

Making research findings freely available is an essential aid to medical progress, experts say

In a PLOS Medicine guest editorial, Paul Glasziou, Professor of Evidence-Based Medicine at Bond University in Australia, explores how open access publications could help moderate and reduce the vast waste of global medical research. Continuing on from his previous work, which highlighted how most of the world’s expenditure on medical research was thrown away, Glasziou outlines how bad the situation is and suggests how it might be improved. Subscription-based academic journals make money by through copyrights assigned by authors to publishers who lock the articles behind paywalls Continue reading

Novel home cleaning method to reduce asthma

Novel home cleaning method to reduce asthma

A team of researchers from the University of South Carolina received two patents for a new method to rid carpets, mattresses and other furniture of harmful allergens and pests that cause asthma. The patents (Methods and Compositions for Eliminating Allergens and Allergen-Producing Organisms) are the work of Michael Matthews, Jian Zhang and Allan Quick and uses carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to “freeze clean” home fabrics. Continue reading

Insights into genetics of cleft lip

Insights into genetics of cleft lip

Scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, have identified how a specific stretch of DNA controls far-off genes to influence the formation of the face. The study, published today in Nature Genetics, helps understand the genetic causes of cleft lip and cleft palate, which are among the most common congenital malformations in humans. “This genomic region ultimately controls genes which determine how to build a face and genes which produce the basic materials needed to execute this plan,” says François Spitz from EMBL, who led the work Continue reading